ES6 new features (Part II)

Well for a long time I wanted to write a blog post about migrating Angular 1.x to 2, however, before doing so I thought it is really helpful to write about some prerequisites of that.

This is the second article in ES6 new features series.

Part I

Part III

6. Arrow Functions in ES6

Do you remember the fat functions of CoffeeScript? Now we have them in ES6. An arrow function expression has a shorter syntax compared to function expressions and lexically binds the this value (does not bind its own this, arguments, super, or

Arrow functions are always anonymous. The fat arrows are amazing because they would make your this behave properly, i.e., this will have the same value as in the context of the function—it won’t mutate. The mutation typically happens each time you create a closure.

var a = ['Hydrogen', 'Helium', 'Lithium', 'Beryl­lium']

var a2 = {
  return s.length

var a3 = => s.length)

The parenthesis () are optional for single params in an arrow function signature. You need them when you use more than one param.

var ids = ['56', '5632']
var messages =, index, list) {
  return 'ID of ' + index + ' element is ' + value + ' ' // explicit return

And more eloquent version of the code in ES6 with parenthesis around params and implicit return:

var ids = ['56', '5632']
var messages =
  (value, index, list) => `ID of ${index} element is ${value} `
) // implicit return

7. Promises in ES6

Promises have been a controversial topic. There were a lot of promise implementations with slightly different syntax. q, bluebird, deferred.js, vow, avow, jquery deferred to name just a few.

Promises have been around quite a while and are defined by a spec called Promise/A+. ES6 has adopted this spec for its Promise implementation.

Promises give us a way to handle asynchronous processing in a more synchronous fashion. They represent a value that we can handle at some point in the future. And, better than callbacks here, Promises give us guarantees about that future value, specifically:

  1. No other registered handlers of that value can change it (the Promise is immutable)
  2. We are guaranteed to receive the value, regardless of when we register a handler for it, even if it’s already resolved (in contrast to events, which can incur race conditions).
// an immediately resolved promise
var p2 = Promise.resolve('foo')

// can get it after the fact, unlike events
p2.then(res => console.log(res))

var p = new Promise(function(resolve, reject) {
  setTimeout(() => resolve(4), 2000)

// handler can't change promise, just value
p.then(res => {
  res += 2

// still gets 4
p.then(res => console.log(res))

The standard way to create a Promise is by using the new Promise constructor which accepts a handler that is given two functions as parameters. The first handler (typically named resolve) is a function to call with the future value when it’s ready; and the second handler (typically named reject) is a function to call to reject the Promise if it can’t resolve the future value.

var p = new Promise(function(resolve, reject) {
   if (/* condition */) {
      resolve(/* value */);  // fulfilled successfully
   else {
      reject(/* reason */);  // error, rejected

And with ES6 arrow functions:

var wait1000 = new Promise((resolve, reject) => {
  setTimeout(resolve, 1000)
}).then(() => {

Now with a slight modification we can revise that to look like this:

var wait1000 = () =>
  new Promise((resolve, reject) => {
    setTimeout(resolve, 1000)

  .then(function() {
    return wait1000()
  .then(function() {

8. Block-Scoped Constructs Let and Const

ES6 provides two new ways of declaring variables: let and const, which mostly replace the ES5 way of declaring variables, varlet works similarly to var, but the variable it declares is block-scoped, it only exists within the current block.

var is function-scoped. In the following code, you can see that the let-declared variable tmp only exists with the block that starts in line A:

function order(x, y) {
  if (x > y) {
    // (A)
    let tmp = x
    x = y
    y = tmp
  console.log(tmp === x) // ReferenceError: tmp is not defined
  return [x, y]

const works like let, but the variable you declare must be immediately initialized, with a value that can’t be changed afterwards.

const foo; // SyntaxError: missing = in const declaration

const bar = 123;
bar = 456; // TypeError: `bar` is read-only

Since for-of creates one binding (storage space for a variable) per loop iteration, it is OK to const-declare the loop variable:

for (const x of ['a', 'b']) {
// Output:
// a
// b

The following table gives an overview of six ways in which variables can be declared in ES6:

Hoisting Scope Creates global properties
var Declaration Function Yes
let Temporal dead zone Block No
const Temporal dead zone Block No
function Complete Block Yes
class No Block No
import Complete Module-global No